From the Latin alteratio, alteration is the action of altering. This verb indicates a change in the shape of something, a disturbance, disorder, or anger. For example: “We cannot live in a state of permanent alteration”, “Throat problems can lead to an alteration of the voice”, “The alteration of ecosystems due to polluting emissions is one of the most serious problems in the actuality ”.
According to DigoPaul, the disturbance, therefore, may be a shock or a state generated by anger or another passion: “I know that, when I tell you what happened, I will have to endure its alteration”, “Calm down and leave the alteration aside, which is an easy problem to solve ”, “ His screams reflected the alteration of his mood ”.
A riot a riot or an altercation may also be called alteration: “Police dispersed the alteration with tear gas”, “A judge ordered a halt to the organizers of the march on the grounds that they were driving an alteration of public order”, “A hard lack of the Italian was the starting point of a general alteration that included insults and blows of all kinds. ”
It is common for the disorder to be associated with stress and nervousness. When a person is upset, they have excessive reactions and are not at peace with themselves, but rather feel upset and annoyed.
In music, alteration is a sign used to modify the sound of a note. These signs, such as A flat (which lowers the sound by one semitone) or Sustain (raises the sound by one semitone), change the pitch or pitch of natural sounds.
Changes known as chromosomal abnormalities or aberrations can affect the number of chromosomes or their structure. On the other hand, there are sudden and independent changes in the environment that are called mutations and that can be transmitted from generation to generation.
Within the numerical alterations there are the following two types:
* euploidies: the alteration occurs in a complete chromosome endowment, which is called a haploid set. The organisms euploid are those with multiples of the haploid set and these can be diploid (if their chromosome number is two) or polypoid (if they have more than two chromosomes, but can also be specified whether it is a triploid, a tetraploid, a pentaploid, etc.);
* aneuploidies: When the alteration affects one or very few pairs of chromosomes, organisms are called aneuploids if they have excess or missing chromosomes. Among the aneuploidy alterations, the so-called nullisomies are especially rare, since they are usually lethal in normal diploid organisms. The monosomy can also cause death, although in humans can trigger the syndrome of Turner if it affects chromosome X.
In many cases, the chromosomes break spontaneously, or induced by mutagenic agents. Although there are mechanisms to repair them, they manage to bring the fragmented parts together, sometimes they fail and cause structural chromosomal mutations. Among these alterations it is possible to distinguish duplications, deletions, translocations and inversions.
The mechanism by which new variants appear in genes due to random errors that occur in hereditary material, and change in allelic form, is known by the name of mutation. A mutation can take place both in germ cells (precursors and gametes; this type of alteration is the only one that can be transmitted by inheritance) and in somatic ones (in this case, despite not transcending the generation in which occurs, may be related to disorders of cancer size).